Elaine holds a Ph.D. in Economics and Social Sciences from the University of Kassel, Germany. Her research focuses on the state, industrial relations, laws, worker collective actions, civil society, and social welfare system in China. She has also researched on labor relations in Vietnam, Hong Kong, and so forth. She has published in peer-reviewed journals such as British Journal of Industrial Relations, China Quarterly, Globalizations, Journal of Industrial Relations, and Journal of Contemporary Asia. The courses she teaches include Comparative Employment Relations, and Labor and Employment Relations in China in Comparative Perspective.